A powerpoint presentation was used with pictures that the students could discuss together using the form ‘could have + past participle’. The students didn’t seem too enthused about the lesson but got involved anyway. They were to look at the pictures and videos and use ‘could have + past participle’ to describe to each other what they saw.
I deliberately had the chairs in two rows facing each other perpendicular to the whiteboard, which acted as the background for the powerpoint presentation which was beamed from a projector.
The difficulties the students had with the exercises were that they did not seem to understand or remember that with irregular verbs the past simple can be different from the past participle. So with the example: ‘swim’, the past simple is ‘swam’ but the past participle is ‘swum’. A note here is that the Japanese students struggled with this example when I gave it to them the next week to clarify because swæm sounds to them the same as swʌm.
There were some technical difficulties as the .gif videos I embedded into the powerpoint played at home on Windows 10 but not on the classroom computer. This site has a gallery of ‘close call’ downloadable and embeddable .gif files that are good for this lesson, the drawback is they are focused mainly on cars and so become a little repetitive after a so many.